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Κυριακή, 26 Σεπτεμβρίου 2010

Phyllanthus ( Chanca Peidra ) για πέτρες στα νεφρά

προέρχεται από τα δάση του περουβιανού Αμαζονίου, το φυτό Changa Piedra (λιθοτρίπτης πετρών στην περουβιανή διάλεκτο) είναι το μοναδικό αποτελεσματικό συμπλήρωμα διατροφής που διαλύει τις πέτρες των νεφρών και αποβάλλονται υπό μορφή άμμου. Γνωστό επίσης στην ελληνική ύπαιθρο ώς σιδηρόχορτο, αλλά και spacca pietra στην Ρόδο ευρέως χρησιμοποιούμενο από την εποχή των Ιπποτών και Ιταλών.

Χρησιμοποιείται κυρίως για την προστασία των νεφρών σε άτομα που έχουν προδιάθεση δημιουργίας πετρών, αλλά και για την υπέρταση, την χολιστερίνη, σαν αναλγητικό, αντιϊικό και την προστασία του ήπατος.

  • Χρήση: Σαν συμπλήρωμα διατροφής, 2-3 κάψουλες την ημέρα.
  • Αντενδείξεις: Καμμία αναφορά
  • Άλλες πρακτικές πληροφορίες:


* Μελέτες έχουν δείξει ότι Chanca Piedra μπορεί να μειώσει την αρτηριακή πίεση. Επομένως, συνιστάται σε άτομα που πάσχουν από υπόταση να είναι σε συνεχή παρακολούθηση.
* Σε ελέγχους που επέδειξαν ορισμένες εργαστηριακές δοκιμές το Chanca Piedra ενδέχεται να έχει αρνητικές επιπτώσεις στη γονιμότητα των γυναικών. Ως εκ τούτου δεν συνιστάται για τις γυναίκες που αναζητούν μια εγκυμοσύνη.
* Το Chanca
Piedra σε κάποιες περιπτώσεις επέδειξε κάποια πιθανή υπογλυκαιμική δράση. Τα άτομα που πάσχουν από υπογλυκαιμία πρέπει επομένως να υποβάλλονται σε συνεχή παρακολούθηση.

Βιβλιογραφία Changa Piedra
Δράσεις για πέτρες στα νεφρά και ουρικό οξύ:
Murugaiyah V, et al. "Antihyperuricemic lignans from the leaves of Phyllanthus niruri." Planta Med. 2006 Nov; 72(14): 1262-7.
Micali, S., et al. "Can Phyllanthus niruri affect the efficacy of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy for renal stones? A randomized, prospective, long-term study." J. Urol. 2006 Sep; 176(3): 1020-2.
Barros, M. E., et al. "Effect of extract of Phyllanthus niruri on crystal deposition in experimental urolithiasis." Urol. Res. 2006 Aug 1;
Nishiura, J. L., et al. “Phyllanthus niruri normalizes elevated urinary calcium levels in calcium stone forming (CSF) patients.” Urol. Res. 2004 Oct; 32(5): 362-6.
Barros, M. E., et al. “Effects of an aqueous extract from Phyllanthus niruri on calcium oxalate crystallization in vitro.” Urol. Res. 2003; 30(6): 374-9.
Freitas, A. M., et al. “The effect of Phyllanthus niruri on urinary inhibitors of calcium oxalate crystallization and other factors associated with renal stone formation.” B. J. U. Int. 2002; 89(9): 829–34.
Campos, A. H., et al. “Phyllanthus niruri inhibits calcium oxalate endocytosis by renal tubular cells: its role in urolithiasis.” Nephron. 1999; 81(4): 393–97.

Δράσεις αντισπασμωδικές, αναλγητικές και αντιφλεγμονώδεις
Kassuya, C. A., et al. "Antiinflammatory and antiallodynic actions of the lignan niranthin isolated from Phyllanthus amarus. Evidence for interaction with platelet activating factor receptor." Eur. J. Pharmacol. 2006 Sep; 546(1-3): 182-8.
Iizuka, T., et al. “Vasorelaxant Effects of Methyl Brevifolincarboxylate from the Leaves of Phyllanthus niruri.” Biol. Pharm. Bull. 2006; 29(1): 177-9.
Kassuya, C.A., et al. “Anti-inflammatory properties of extracts, fractions and lignans isolated from Phyllanthus amarus.” Planta Med. 2005; 71(8): 721-6.
Kiemer, A. K., et al. “Phyllanthus amarus has anti-inflammatory potential by inhibition of iNOS, COX-2, and cytokines via the NF-kappaB pathway.” J. Hepatol. 2003; 38(3): 289-97.
Santos, A. R., et al. “Antinociceptive properties of extracts of new species of plants of the genus Phyllanthus (Euphorbiaceae).” J. Ethnopharmacol. 2000; 72(1/2): 229–38.
Miguel, O. G., et al. “Chemical and preliminary analgesic evaluation of geraniin and furosin isolated from Phyllanthus sellowianus.” Planta Med. 1996; 62(2): 146–49.
Santos, A. R., et al. “Analysis of the mechanisms underlying the antinociceptive effect of the extracts of plants from the genus Phyllanthus.” Gen. Pharmacol. 1995; 26(7): 1499–1506.
Santos, A. R., et al. “Further studies on the antinociceptive action of the hydroalcohlic extracts from plants of the genus Phyllanthus.” J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 1995; 47(1): 66–71.
Santos, A. R., et al. “Analgesic effects of callus culture extracts from selected species of Phyllanthus in mice.” J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 1994; 46(9): 755–59.

Sulle azioni αντιϊικές:
Huang, R. L., et al. “Screening of 25 compounds isolated from Phyllanthus species for anti-human hepatitis B virus in vitro.” Phytother. Res. 2003; 17(5): 449-53.
Liu, J., et al. “Genus Phyllanthus for chronic Hepatitis B virus infection: A systematic review.” Viral Hepat. 2001; 8(5): 358–66.
Xin-Hua, W., et al. “A comparative study of Phyllanthus amarus compound and interferon in the treatment of chronic viral Hepatitis B.” Southeast Asian J. Trop. Med. Public Health 2001; 32(1): 140–42.
Wang, M. X., et al. “Herbs of the genus Phyllanthus in the treatment of chronic Hepatitis B: Observation with three preparations from different geographic sites.” J. Lab. Clin. Med. 1995; 126(4): 350–52.
Wang, M. X., et al. “Observations of the efficacy of Phyllanthus spp. in treating patients with chronic Hepatitis B.” 1994; 19(12): 750–52.
Thyagarajan, S. P., et al. “Effect of Phyllanthus amarus on chronic carriers of Hepatitis B virus.” Lancet 1988; 2(8614): 764–66.
Venkateswaran, P. S., et al. “Effects of an extract from Phyllanthus niruri on Hepatitis B and wood chuck hepatitis viruses: in vitro and in vivo studies.” Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 1987; 84(1): 274–78.
Bhumyamalaki, et al. “Phyllanthus niruri and jaundice in children.” J. Natl. Integ. Med. Ass. 1983; 25(8): 269–72.
Thyagarajan, S. P., et al. “In vitro inactivation of HBsAG by Eclipta alba (Hassk.) and Phyllanthus niruri (Linn.).” Indian J. Med. Res. 1982; 76s: 124–30.
Notka, F., et al. “Concerted inhibitory activities of Phyllanthus amarus on HIV replication in vitro and ex vivo.” Antiviral Res. 2004 Nov; 64(2): 93-102.
Notka, F., et al. “Inhibition of wild-type human immunodeficiency virus and reverse transcriptase inhibitor-resistant variants by Phyllanthus amarus.” Antiviral Res. 2003 Apr; 58(2): 175-186.
Qian-Cutrone, J. “Niruriside, a new HIV REV/RRE binding inhibitor from Phyllanthus niruri.” J. Nat. Prod. 1996; 59(2): 196–99.
Ogata, T., et al. “HIV-1 reverse transcriptase inhibitor from Phyllanthus niruri.” AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses 1992; 8(11): 1937–44.

Δράσεις προστασίας και της αποτοξίνωσης του ήπατος:
Bhattacharjee, R., et al. "Protein isolate from the herb, Phyllanthus niruri L. (Euphorbiaceae), plays hepatoprotective role against carbon tetrachloride induced liver damage via its antioxidant properties." Food Chem. Toxicol. 2006 Nov 11;
Chatterjee, M., et al. "Hepatoprotective effect of aqueous extract of Phyllanthus niruri on nimesulide-induced oxidative stress in vivo." Indian J. Biochem. Biophys. 2006 Oct; 43(5): 299-305.
Bhattacharjee, R., et al. "The protein fraction of Phyllanthus niruri plays a protective role against acetaminophen induced hepatic disorder via its antioxidant properties." Phytother. Res. 2006; 20(7): 595-601.
Lee, C. Y., et al. "Hepatoprotective effect of Phyllanthus in Taiwan on acute liver damage induced by carbon tetrachloride." Am. J. Chin. Med. 2006; 34(3): 471-82.
Chatterjee, M., et al. "Herbal (Phyllanthus niruri) protein isolate protects liver from nimesulide induced oxidative stress." Pathophysiology. 2006 May; 13(2): 95-102.
Khatoon, S., et al. “Comparative pharmacognostic studies of three Phyllanthus species.” 2006 Mar; 104(1-2): 79-86.
Levy, C., et al. “Use of herbal supplements for chronic liver disease.” Clin. Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2004; 2(11): 947-56.
Rajeshkumar, N. V., et al. “Phyllanthus amarus extract administration increases the life span of rats with hepatocellular carcinoma.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 2000 Nov; 73(1–2): 215–19.
Padma, P., et al. "Protective effect of Phyllanthus fraternus against carbon tetrachloride-induced mitochondrial dysfunction." Life Sci. 1999; 64(25): 2411-17.
Jeena, K. J., et al. “Effect of Emblica officinalis, Phyllanthus amarus and Picrorrhiza kurroa on n-nitrosodiethylamine induced hepatocarcinogenesis.” Cancer Lett. 1999; 136(1): 11–16.
Thabrew, M. R., et al. “Phytogenic agents in the therapy of liver disease.” Phytother. Res. 1996; 10(6): 461–67.
Prakash, A., et al. “Comparative hepatoprotective activity of three Phyllanthus species, P. urinaria, P. niruri and P.simplex, on carbon tetrachloride induced liver injury in the rat.” Phytother. Res. 1995; 9(8): 594–96.
Dhir, H., et al. “Protection afforded by aqueous extracts of Phyllanthus species against cytotoxicity induced by lead and aluminium salts.” Phytother. Res. 1990; 4(5): 172–76
Sreenivasa, R. Y. “Experimental production of liver damage and its protection with Phyllanthus niruri and Capparis spinosa (both ingredients of LIV52) in white albino rats.” Probe 1985; 24(2): 117–19.
Syamasundar, K. V., et al. "Antihepatotoxic principles of Phyllanthus niruri herbs." J. Ethnopharmacol. 1985; 14(1): 41-4.

Δράσεις για τον καρκίνο και την προστασία των κυττάρων:
Leite, D. F., et al. "The cytotoxic effect and the multidrug resistance reversing action of lignans from Phyllanthus amarus." Planta Med. 2006 Dec; 72(15): 1353-8.
Raphael, K. R., et al. "Inhibition of N-Methyl N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) induced gastric carcinogenesis by Phyllanthus amarus extract." Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev. 2006 Apr-Jun; 7(2): 299-302.
Hari Kumar, K. B., et al . "Inhibition of drug metabolizing enzymes (cytochrome P450) in vitro as well as in vivo by Phyllanthus amarus Schum & Thonn." Biol. Pharm. Bull. 2006; 29(7): 1310-3.
Mellinger, C. G., et al. “Chemical and biological properties of an arabinogalactan from Phyllanthus niruri.” J. Nat. Prod. 2005; 68(10): 1479-83.
Kumar, K. B., et al. “Chemoprotective activity of an extract of Phyllanthus amarus against cyclophosphamide induced toxicity in mice.” Phytomedicine. 2005; 12(6-7): 494-500.
Raphael, K. R., et al. “Inhibition of experimental gastric lesion and inflammation by Phyllanthus amarus extract.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 2003; 87(2-3): 193-7.
Rajeshkumar, N. V. "Antitumour and anticarcinogenic activity of Phyllanthus amarus extract." J. Ethnopharmacol. 2002; 81(1): 17-22.
Sripanidkulchai, B., et al. “Antimutagenic and anticarcinogenic effects of Phyllanthus amarus.” Phytomedicine 2002; 9(1): 26–32.
Devi, P. U. “Radioprotective effect of Phyllanthus niruri on mouse chromosomes.” Curr. Sci. 2000; 78(10): 1245–47.
Souza, C. R., et al. “Compounds extracted from Phyllanthus and Jatropha elliptica inhibit the binding of [3H]glutamate and [3H]GMP-PNP in rat cerebral cortex membrane.” Neurochem. Res. 2000; 25(2): 211–15.

Δράσεις για την καταπολέμηση του διαβήτη και των αντι-χοληστερόλης:
Adeneye, A. A., et al. "Hypoglycemic and hypocholesterolemic activities of the aqueous leaf and seed extract of Phyllanthus amarus in mice." Fitoterapia. 2006 Dec; 77(7-8): 511-4.
Ali, H., et al. "alpha-Amylase inhibitory activity of some Malaysian plants used to treat diabetes; with particular reference to Phyllanthus amarus." J. Ethnopharmacol. 2006 Oct; 107(3): 449-55.
Raphael, K. R., et al. “Hypoglycemic effect of methanol extract of Phyllanthus amarus Schum & Thonn on alloxan induced diabetes mellitus in rats and its relation with antioxidant potential.” Indian J. Exp. Biol. 2002; 40(8): 905-9.
Khanna, A. K., et al. "Lipid lowering activity of Phyllanthus niruri in hyperlipemic rats." J. Ethnopharmacol. 2002; 82(1): 19-22.
Srividya, N., et al. “Diuretic, hypotensive and hypoglycaemic effect of Phyllanthus amarus.” Indian J. Exp. Biol. 1995; 33(11): 861–64.
Shimizu, M., et al. “Studies on aldose reductase inhibitors from natural products. II. Active components of a Paraguayan crude drug, ‘paraparai mi,’ Phyllanthus niruri.” Chem. Pharm. Bull. (Tokyo) 1989; 37(9): 2531–32.
Umarani, D., et al. “Ethanol induced metabolic alterations and the effect of Phyllanthus niruri in their reversal.” Ancient Sci. Life 1985; 4(3): 174–80.
Ramakrishnan, P. N., et al. “Oral hypoglycaemic effect of Phyllanthus niruri (Linn.) leaves.” Indian J. Pharm. Sci. 1982; 44(1): 10–12.

Δράσεις κατά παρασίτων, ανθελονοσιακά, αντιμικροβιακή και επούλωση τραυμάτων:

Mazumder, A., et al. "Antimicrobial potentiality of Phyllanthus amarus against drug resistant pathogens." Nat. Prod. Res. 2006; 20(4):323-6.
Devi, V., et al. "Effect of Phyllanthus niruri on wound healing in rats." Indian J. Physiol Pharmacol. 2005 Oct-Dec; 49(4): 487-90.
Kolodziej, H., et al. "Tannins and related compounds induce nitric oxide synthase and cytokines gene expressions in Leishmania major-infected macrophage-like RAW 264.7 cells." Bioorg. Med. Chem. 2005 Dec; 13(23): 6470-6.
Subeki, S., et al. "Anti-babesial and anti-plasmodial compounds from Phyllanthus niruri." J. Nat. Prod. 2005; 68(4): 537-9.
Kloucek, P., et al. “Antibacterial screening of some Peruvian medicinal plants used in Calleria District.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 2005 Jun; 99(2): 309-12.
Cimanga, R. K., et al. “In vitro antiplasmodial activity of callus culture extracts and fractions from fresh apical stems of Phyllanthus niruri L. (Euphorbiaceae): part 2.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 2004 Dec; 95(2-3): 399-404.
Agrawal, A., et al. “Evaluation of inhibitory effect of the plant Phyllanthus amarus against dermatophytic fungi Microsporum gypseum.” Biomed. Environ. Sci. 2004 Sep; 17(3): 359-65.
Tona, L., et al. “In vitro antiplasmodial activity of extracts and fractions from seven medicinal plants used in the Democratic Republic of Congo.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 2004 Jul; 93(1): 27-32.
Mesia, L. T. K., et al. “In-vitro antimalarial activity of Cassia occidentalis, Morinda morindoides and Phyllanthus niruri.” Ann. Trop. Med. Parasitol. 2001; 95(1): 47–57.
Tona, L., et al. “Antimalarial activity of 20 crude extracts from nine African medicinal plants used in Kinshasa, Congo.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 1999; 68(1/3): 193–203.
Farouk, A., et al. “Antimicrobial activity of certain Sudanese plants used in folkloric medicine. Screening for antibacterial activity (I).” Fitoterapia 1983; 54(1): 3–7.

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